Science

Mechanisms

How could man-made environments influence childhood development of myopia?

This study demonstrated that man-made indoor environments may provide a myopigenic effect from reduced illumination and spatial frequencies. More research is needed to confirm if the mechanism for form deprivation from reduced spatial frequencies in humans is similar to that found for animals, and what improvements can be made to indoor environments to offset the risk for myopia.

Can previous progression predict future myopia?

The SCORM study analyzed the relationship between myopia progression a year after baseline and subsequent 2-year progression for myopic Singaporean children. Progression and age at baseline were found to be strongly associated with subsequent progression. However, they were shown to have limited predictive values and other factors are likely to determine future progression.

Dual focus contact lenses and near viewing

This study examines the effect that dual focus contact lenses have on accommodation and defocus during near viewing, and the results provide clues towards understanding the myopia control mechanism of these contact lenses.

The importance of myopia control soft contact lens design

Increasing power in a myopia control treatment zone of a multifocal soft contact lens can increase myopia control efficacy but negatively impact vision. This study is the first optical characterization of a novel design to improve this relationship between treatment zone power and vision quality.

Topical caffeine protects against myopia development in monkeys

Caffeine-based eye drops created hyperopic shifts in baby rhesus monkeys during the emmetropization process, and protected against myopia development due to induced hyperopic defocus. The serum level of caffeine was similar to one cup of coffee in a human adult. This potential future myopia treatment requires further research on dosage, benefits and side effects before use in humans.

IMI 2021 Yearly Digest

The IMI 2021 Yearly Digest summarized recent updates and progress in research of myopia, taking in all publications since the IMI Volume One reports published in early 2019. Each of the Volume One reports included an update – definitions, interventions, genetics, experimental models, clinical trial guidance, ethical considerations and clinical management. While further research is needed, the strengthening evidence base indicates eye care practitioners should embrace proactive myopia management.

IMI Report on Pathologic Myopia

This IMI Report takes a deep dive into pathological myopia, including its prevalence and defining characteristics. The role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is discussed, as well as emerging treatment options. Read the summary here.

IMI Report on Accommodation and Binocular Vision in Myopia Development and Progression

This paper has found there are numerous correlations but only weak evidence to demonstrate a causal link between accommodation and myopia development. Assessment of the young myope’s accommodation and binocular vision function is still important. More understanding of the underlying mechanisms for myopia is needed in order to develop evidence-based interventions.

Does myopia occur earlier in children if their parents are myopic?

This multi-ethnic study found that parental myopia was a risk factor for myopia development in pre-school age children. The age the parents became myopic themselves had a dose-dependent effect in their children if both parents had onset of myopia before age 12. Eye care practitioners can use this to identify which children may benefit from early myopia treatment intervention.

Light-emitting glasses alter axial length and choroidal thickness in young adults

Light-emitting glasses worn by young adults for 1-2 hours reduced axial length and increased choroidal thickness by around 20 microns compared to darkness. The study participants viewed a colour-muted television at 5m while indoors, and the changes regressed within 30 minutes. A future myopia treatment to increase ‘outdoor’ time?