How could man-made environments influence childhood development of myopia?

This study demonstrated that man-made indoor environments may provide a myopigenic effect from reduced illumination and spatial frequencies. More research is needed to confirm if the mechanism for form deprivation from reduced spatial frequencies in humans is similar to that found for animals, and what improvements can be made to indoor environments to offset the risk for myopia.

Frequency and prediction of myopic macular degeneration in adults

This Singapore study found that 10-12% of ALL adult myopes aged 40-80 years – not just high myopes – suffered either onset or progression of MMD over 12 years. Risk factors included each additional year of age and 1mm of axial length. The most significant predictive sign was tesselated fundus.

How does the myopic peripheral retina respond to multifocal contact lens wear?

Analysis of the BLINK study results showed a global more than localized impact on slowing eye growth in +2.50 CD multifocal contact lens wear. The slowed growth effects were greater centrally than peripherally. This suggests local defocus responses may not provide the full story behind myopia control mechanisms.

The effect of online learning on myopia progression

By using a wearable device to objectively monitor visual behaviour, this study found progression in young myopic children was correlated with less time outdoors, more time working at near for online learning and less time spent wearing their glasses.

A study of myopia progression in France

This large cohort study analysed myopic prescriptions from 136,333 French children and teens. Factors influencing myopia progression were found to include a child’s age, gender and refraction of their first optical correction. Children aged 7-10yrs showed the fastest progression.

When axial length progresses, but not refractive error

In this case, we meet a child whose axial length has progressed 0.4mm in one year, even with myopia control treatment. Yet, his refractive error hasn’t changed. What could cause this and what is the best course of action?

Myopia incidence and progression in young adults

This cohort study from Australia reported a 14% incidence (onset) of myopia between ages 20 and 28, with almost 40% of myopes progressing by at least 0.50D. Axial length increase was also demonstrated. Risk factors were related to ethnicity, sex, sun exposure and parental myopia but not education level. This data advocates for active myopia management throughout the 20s.

The difficulty in identifying fast-progressing myopes based on prior progression

Prediction modelling for future myopic progression was found to be more accurate when factors such as age, sex and ethnicity were considered, rather than prior progression. Myopia management should be initiated when myopia is apparent regardless of prior progression, rather than waiting to assess the progression rate.

Can previous progression predict future myopia?

The SCORM study analyzed the relationship between myopia progression a year after baseline and subsequent 2-year progression for myopic Singaporean children. Progression and age at baseline were found to be strongly associated with subsequent progression. However, they were shown to have limited predictive values and other factors are likely to determine future progression.

Can we predict success with orthokeratology?

This study investigated the accuracy of using pre-treatment axial elongation and changes in refractive sphere in predicting myopia control success in orthokeratology. Axial length was the more accurate method for categorisation of slow, moderate or rapid progression, and fast progressors benefited the most from ortho-k wear.