In young adult myopes, Biofinity centre-distance +2.50 Add and NaturalVue multifocal contact lenses both showed reduced visual acuity in lower lighting and low contrast conditions, and especially with a glare source, compared to single vision. Reading rate under normal lighting was also reduced by 4-8%. The multifocal designs performed similarly, although Biofinity required more over-refraction for best distance acuity.
Caffeine-based eye drops created hyperopic shifts in baby rhesus monkeys during the emmetropization process, and protected against myopia development due to induced hyperopic defocus. The serum level of caffeine was similar to one cup of coffee in a human adult. This potential future myopia treatment requires further research on dosage, benefits and side effects before use in humans.
The IMI 2021 Yearly Digest summarized recent updates and progress in research of myopia, taking in all publications since the IMI Volume One reports published in early 2019. Each of the Volume One reports included an update – definitions, interventions, genetics, experimental models, clinical trial guidance, ethical considerations and clinical management. While further research is needed, the strengthening evidence base indicates eye care practitioners should embrace proactive myopia management.
This paper has found there are numerous correlations but only weak evidence to demonstrate a causal link between accommodation and myopia development. Assessment of the young myope’s accommodation and binocular vision function is still important. More understanding of the underlying mechanisms for myopia is needed in order to develop evidence-based interventions.
This report details non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for myopia. Of the latter, Increasing the time children spend outside is an evidence-based intervention for myopia management. Near work is also a risk factor, although the causal relationship is less clear and future research with objective measures will provided more guidance on targeted clinical interventions.
There is general widespread accepted belief that increasing time spent outdoors can be protective against progression of myopia. Xiong et al set out to better understand the research by performing a meta-analysis of 51 clinical trials and longitudinal studies that investigated the relationship between time spent outdoors and the risk of either developing myopia, progression of existing myopia or a myopic shift in refractive error.
Being able to assess myopia progression in a similar way to height and weight using growth curves is beneficial for both practitioners and patients as it provides a comparison against a calculated average, helping to predict future high myopes and track progression and control outcomes. How to growth charts from European and Asian studies compare? We explore the comparisons, advantages and disadvantages of using growth charts for axial length in myopia.